If you use a password protected SSH key, ssh in a standard setup will ask for your password each time you use the key. You can use ssh-agent to save the key for later use after decryption. In this use case ssh-agent is a program that caches the encryption key for you so that you can use it later without having to enter the password again. For other scenarios ssh-agent has some more advantages.

Since there are quite different setup strategies out in the wild I just want to quickly take notes about my approach in which the first usage of the key will query for the password and subsequent uses will use the key from ssh-agent. Other approaches include:

  • decrypting the key automatically with PAM
  • manually adding the key to ssh-agent with ssh-add
  • adding the keys automatically to the ssh-agent with delay of the decryption until first usage

I start ssh-agent with a script in my .bashrc file (or respective file if you use another shell). However, running ssh-agent as a systemd service is also possible.

Usage of ssh-agent will require a few environment variables to be set. ssh-agent will print them during startup, but it is your own responsibility to source them. .bashrc is a good place for this if you start your programs from there. You also have to make sure to start ssh-agent only once, otherwise different shells will use different agents and thus will not share the same decrypted keys (which means you will have to decrypt the same key again).

# Check whether ssh-agent is already running as a process
# if not start it and create a run file with the environment
# variables that ssh-agent gives us and wants us to source
if ! pgrep -u "$USER" ssh-agent > /dev/null; then
    ssh-agent > "$XDG_RUNTIME_DIR/ssh-agent.env"
fi

# If the environment variable $SSH_AUTH_SOCK has not been set
# yet, source the environment variables from our instance of
# ssh-agent
# Redirect the output to /dev/null; otherwise each bash would show
# the ssh-agent PID
if [[ ! "$SSH_AUTH_SOCK" ]]; then
    eval "$(<"$XDG_RUNTIME_DIR/ssh-agent.env")" > /dev/null
fi

Next, you need to tell ssh to automatically send decrypted keys to the agent. For this, add the line AddKeysToAgent yes to your ~/.ssh/config.

With this setup SSH will ask you for your SSH password on first usage and will then send it

I do not maintain a comments section. If you have any questions or comments regarding my posts, please do not hesitate to send me an e-mail to stefan@eliteinformatiker.de.